Table of Contents
Diabetes is a metabolic condition, in which there is excess amount of glucose in the blood which is regulated by the hormone insulin, and results in various symptoms like frequent urination.
i. Diabetes Mellitus
This is a metabolic condition in which the blood sugar level is not stable. Thus, insulin will aggravate the cell, which will get glucose from the blood. For example, insulin will trigger the liver cell to take up glucose and the remaining is transformed to glycogen. If the insulin is not there, it would result in too much of sugar levels in the blood as well as urine.
Due to insulin issues, when diabetes occurs, it is known as juvenile onset type 1 or adult-onset type 2. Type 1 diabetes is seen in kids and adults, although does occur in people with other ages as well. and is usually heredity. Type 2 diabetes occurs due to irregular lifestyle and inappropriate or very poor food intake. Such type of diabetes is often seen in people of mid-age, but does happen in other age as well.
As the bodies immune system, disrupts the pancreatic cell, which generates insulin, thus insulin is not formed, which will lead to type 1 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is caused by insulin resistance and improper amount of glucose produced. As insufficient amount of glucose is produced and even when if present body cannot utilize it, thus, getting used to it resulting in resistance development and making the insulin cell ineffective.
ii. Gestational Diabetes
This type of diabetes is seen in pregnant women and after the child is born it goes away. Although there are chances of that leading to type 2 diabetes further.
iii. Diabetes Insipidus
Diabetes mellitus and insipidus are not connected to the other. Diabetes insipidus is not common like diabetes mellitus. Like in diabetes mellitus, which occurs due to improper insulin, diabetes insipidus is related to the hormone vasopressin. This hormone has the water retention ability in kidneys. Thus, there is huge amount of water lost in the form of urine, as tubules do not take up water. This could be due to the following reasons:
- Improper functioning of aquaporin water channel.
- Inappropriate amount of ADH being released from pituitary gland.
- The receptors of renal tubules are non-functional to which ADH will bind, this could be due to medications or kidney disorders.
- Genetics of Diabetes Insipidus. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am . 2017 Jun;46(2):305-334.
- Genetic Factors of Diabetes. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz) . 2016 Dec;64(Suppl 1):157-160.
- Diabetes insipidus in infants and children. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab . 2016 Mar;30(2):317-28.
- Figures are created with BioRender.com