The process of producing offspring by organized bodies is called reproduction.
What is Reproduction?
The process of producing offspring by different methods is called reproduction. Reproduction involves the production of a new individual organism from a single parent or may involve two parents. It is one of the fundamental processes of any living being that is demonstrated by the ability of an organism to produce a new organism.
It can be categorized into two types-
(1) Sexual Reproduction
(2) Asexual Reproduction
The mode of reproduction that involves the fusion of male and female gamete is called sexual reproduction. It requires two parent organisms, where the fusion results in the formation of the zygote that develops into genetically different offspring.
Meiosis and fertilization are the major processes of sexual reproduction. Meiosis is also known as reduction division that produces genetically different haploid gametes due to genetic recombination. Meiosis occurs to maintain the number of chromosomes in a zygote that has a different genome from either of the parents.
On the other hand, asexual reproduction is another mode of reproduction that involves only one parent. The offspring produced by asexual reproduction is a clone of its parent organism. The process of ploidy reduction, meiosis, and fertilization are absent in asexual reproduction.
However, in asexual reproduction, the offspring results in low genetic variation in the species and is considered a clone of the parent. Etymology- The word reproduction is derived from the Latin word re meaning “again” and production meaning “production”. It is also known as breeding or procreation.