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Flavin Mononucleotide Definition
Flavin mononucleotide is a type of single unit comprised of phosphoric acid, pentose sugar and nucleobase. Its chemically written as C17H21N4O9P and performs various functions like carrying out oxidative-reductions reactions and metabolic activities. Thus, flavin mononucleotide is a mononucleotide biomolecules, which is riboflavin i.e B12 derivative.
What is Flavin Mononucleotide?
Flavin mononucleotide is also known as vitamin B12 phosphate, riboflavin-5-phopshate and riboflavin mononucleotide. After undergoing catalytic activity by the enzyme riboflavin kinase, the biomolecule, which is made from B12 is obtained. Thus, flavin mononucleotide is formed, when its phosphorylated, where flavin comes from the B12 riboflavin.
The word flavin originates from a Latin word, which means yellow. Thus, riboflavin is derived from flavin and ribose where the ring structure on oxidation turns yellow in color. Thus, flavins are organic compounds which are formed from tricyclic heterocycle isoalloxazine. Flavin adenine dinucleotide is an example of flavin.
Importance of Flavin Mononucleotide
Flavin mononucleotide is an oxidizing agent and when it’s compared to NAD, its known that FMN is quite strong oxidizing agent. Although FAD and FMN can take electrons, in two stages or either in one stage accepting two electrons.
Flavin Mononucleotide Function
Flavin mononucleotide can behave as a cofactor, where it can carry out various oxidation reduction reaction and in blue light photo receptors behave as a cofactor. Flavin mononucleotide is used as an additive in food industry, and it looks like orange red in color.
It is used in desserts, dairy products and in products containing sugar. On consumption of flavin mononucleotide, it releases riboflavin. By FAD pyrophosphorylase, FMN is transformed to FAD and requires ATP. FAD when bound to proteins forms flavoproteins, which aids in various processes like photosynthesis, repairing DNA, scavenging free radical, bioluminescence and others.
FAD is also a cofactor which bounds with FMN at its phosphate group, along with adenine. In platelets, red blood cells and muscles, FMN is located and undergoes pathways like riboflavin metabolism, coA biosynthesis, arginine and proline metabolism, vitamin B6 metabolism, beta- alanine metabolism and pyrimidine metabolism.