Role of Golgi Apparatus & Endoplasmic Reticulum in Protein Synthesis

mRNA, tRNA, and Protein Synthesis

After the transcription, mRNA from the nucleus moves to the cytoplasm, where the protein synthesis will be carried out by ribosomes. The tRNA anticodons are complementary to the mRNA strand. For example, A-U-A-C-A-U is the sequence of mRNA then tRNA will have the sequence complementary to it which is U-A-U-G-U-A.

Thus, the 3 bases combines in tRNA which are complementary to the mRNA, resulting in 3 bases combinations which codes for a particular amino acid.

  • To make amino acid sequence specific, there are specific criteria which are:
  • As mRNA is generated from DNA, it has a specific sequence.
  • Similarly, the tRNA anticodons also possess a specific sequence.
  • The DNA has a particular specific bases in the start.
  • As each 3 bases codes for a particular amino acid, these combined amino acid sequence further results in the formation of protein.

Thus, huge chains of amino acids forms proteins, which are further used in various forms like the enzymes, hormones and carry out various functions.

Ribosome, ER, and Protein Synthesis

Protein synthesis takes place in the cytosol, where ribosomes are present and are also found on the rough endoplasmic reticulum surface as it possess huge area where ribosomes can occupy position and initiate the synthesis of protein.

Rough endoplasmic reticulum, is more prominent in growing cells as it requires various necessary items for its growth. From the endoplasmic reticulum, the newly formed proteins are moved to the golgi bodies.

Golgi Apparatus and Protein Synthesis

It is a sac, which is uniform and comprises of fluids, which permeates the movement of molecules within the cell. for it to complete its production, it requires carbohydrates. Via the cell membrane vesicle, the glycoprotein is transported from golgi bodies and as it reaches the membrane’s receptor it will bind to it and secrete a protein which will further carry out its task.

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