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Isomaltose is a disaccharide produced by joining two glucose monomers together via a glycosidic link α (1→6); a maltose isomer.
What is Isomaltose?
Carbohydrates are a large group of biomolecules that are categorised according to their saccharide content. A disaccharide is a carbohydrate synthesized by the union of two monosaccharides by a glycosidic bond (glycosidic linkage). A disaccharide carbohydrate like isomaltose is an example.
Isomaltose is a disaccharide made up of two glucose units with the chemical formula C12H22O11. The molar mass of this substance is 342.30 gmol−1. It has a melting point of 98-160 degrees Celsius. It is a fermentable sugar that is soluble in water.
Isomaltose vs Maltose
Isomaltose is a maltose isomer. The glycosidic bond that connects two glucose units distinguishes isomaltose from maltose. The glucose molecules in maltose are joined together by an α-1→4 glycosidic bond. The connection in isomaltose is an α-1→6 glycosidic bond.
This indicates that a bond occurs between the -anomeric form of Carbon-1 (C-1) on one glucose and the hydroxyl oxygen atom on C-4 on the other glucose in maltose, but a bond forms between C-1 on one glucose and C-6 on the other glucose in isomaltose. Isomaltose is a reducing sugar, similar to maltose.
It can become an open-chain form with its functional group functioning as a reducing agent since it only contains one of the two anomeric carbons in the glycosidic bond.
Isomaltose vs Isomaltulose
Isomaltose and isomaltulose are both carbohydrates that are made up of disaccharides. Isomaltose is a maltose-derived disaccharide, whereas isomaltulose is generated from sucrose. One of the most frequent dietary disaccharides is sucrose.
Its isomer, isomaltulose, is made up of glucose and fructose joined together by an α-1→6 glycosidic bond, just like sucrose. Isomaltulose and isomaltose have a glycosidic link that binds two monosaccharide components in a similar way.
The two monosaccharides in isomaltose, on the other hand, are two glucose units. Isomaltose and isomalt are not the same thing. Isomalt is a sucrose-derived disaccharide polyol. When isomaltulose is hydrogenated, it may be made.
Biological Activities of Isomaltose
One of the primary components of isomalto-oligosaccharide is isomaltose (IMO). Isomaltriose, isomaltotetraose, isomaltopentaose, panose, and kojibiose are among the others. To make IMO, these carbs are joined together by alpha-D-(1,6)-linkages. IMO is naturally generated in fermented foods such as soy sauce and sake.
Isomaltose can also be obtained by digesting starches, including bread, rice, and potatoes. Dietary isomaltose and IMO are difficult to digest in humans. Alpha-(1,6) links are more difficult to hydrolyze than alpha-(1,4) connections. Sucrase-isomaltase, a glucosidase enzyme, aids in the hydrolysis of alpha 1-6 links.
The enzyme is found on the small intestine’s brush edge. It helps in the digestion of isomaltose, sucrose, and starch in addition to isomaltose. As a result, a lack of this enzyme may cause indigestion and osmotic diarrhoea.
Isomaltose Function and Importance
Isomaltose is a glucose-based disaccharide that may be digested to create chemical energy. As a result, isomaltose can be used as an energy source. It is produced when starch or foods containing IMO or isomaltose are digested.
However, the majority of dietary isomaltose is synthesised rather than acquired natively. Rather, it is obtained by the use of artificial preparations. It’s made artificially from high maltose syrup using the enzyme transglucosidase, for example. Another method is to use the bacterial enzyme sucrose isomerase to break down sucrose.
Isomaltose is a sweetening ingredient produced artificially and used in confections, sweets, and canned foods. Artificial isomaltose is utilised in animal feed, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics in addition to the food sector.
Sucrase-Isomaltase insufficiency is an uncommon metabolic disease defined by an individual’s inability to digest specific sugars due to a sucrase-isomaltase deficit. Isomaltulose, sucrose, and isomaltose are unabsorbed without this enzyme, and so serve as osmotic laxatives.
Diarrhea, vomiting, flatulence, and stomach distention are all frequent symptoms. Genetic testing is also a consideration. Mutations in the SI gene are linked to the disease. This gene produces the sucrase-isomaltase enzyme, which is a functioning enzyme.
The enzyme’s structure, function, or production may have been harmed as a result of this gene’s mutation. The disease has an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern. The treatment of sucrase-isomaltasse deficit includes a change in diet that reduces the amount of starch or sucrose consumed.